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广东成人学位英语语法——虚拟语气

广东省成考中心 2021-11-03

  第四部分 虚拟语气

  如果所表示的条件根本不可能实现或实现的可能性很小时,称为虚拟条件句。

  考试重点:虚拟语气的基本形式和用法;if的省略形式;含蓄条件句;以wish(that)引导的表示“愿望”的宾语从句;would rather 引导的从句;以as if, as though 引导的从句;以suggest, advise, insist 等词后引导的宾语从句;It is necessary(important)that引导的主语从句;It is time (that)…句型中。

  一、虚拟语气的基本形式和用法:

  虚拟(条件)语气中,主句与从句中谓语动词的形式可分为下面三类:

  

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  1、I would ask George to lend us the money if I _____ him.

  A. had known

  B. have known

  C. knew

  D. know

  (答案:C。与现在的事实相反,从句用过去时)

  2、Do you think there would be less conflict in the world if all people _____ the same language?

  A. spoke

  B. speak

  C. had spoken

  D. will speak

  (答案:A。与现在的事实相反,从句的谓语动词用过去时。)

  3、If Bob____ with us, he would have had a good time.

  A. would come

  B. would have come

  C. had come

  D. came

  (答案为C。与过去的事实相反,从句的谓语动词用过去完成时。)

  二、if的省略形式

  在虚拟条件句中, 如谓语包含were , had, should等词, 则可以把这些词放到主语前面,省略if。

  1、_____ you were busy, I wouldn't have bothered you with my questions.

  A. If I realized

  B. Had I realized

  C. Did I have realized that

  D. As I realized

  (答案:B。虚拟条件句有时可以省略if,而将谓语中的过去式were,had,或should等移至主语之前。)

  2、_____, I should ask them some questions.

  A. Should they come to us

  B. If they come to us

  C. Were they come to us

  D. Had they come to us

  (答案:A。与将来事实相反。)

  三、含蓄条件句

  有时一个假设的情况不用条件从句表示,而用其它方式来表示,这样的句子叫含蓄条件句。常用with,without,but for。

  1、Without your help, we _____ so much.

  A. didn’t achieve

  B. would not have achieved

  C. will not achieve

  D. don’t achieve

  (答案:B。这是一句含蓄条件句,条件暗含在介词短语without your help中,因此要用虚拟语气。)

  2、But for the rain, we _____ a nice holiday.

  A. should have

  B. would have had

  C. would have

  D. will have had

  (答案:B)

  四、以wish(that)引导的表示“愿望”的宾语从句

  wish后的宾语从句中要用虚拟语气,而在虚拟语气中时态的应用类似在非真实条件中从句时态的应用。表示现在或将来的愿望用:主语+wish +从句(主语+过去时);表示一个过去没有实现的愿望用:主语+wish +从句(主语+过去完成时);

  1、Peter wishes that he _____ law instead of literature when he was in college.

  A. could study

  B. studied

  C. had studied

  D. would study

  (答案:C)

  2、I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I _____ there.

  A. were

  B. would be

  C. had been

  D. will be

  (答案:C)

  五、would rather+句子(过去时)

  1、I’d _____ you didn’t touch that, if you don’t mind.

  A. rather

  B. better

  C. happier

  D. further

  (答为案:A)

  2、I am too busy these days. I would rather all of you _____ next month for a dinner.

  A. come

  B. would come

  C. came

  D. have come

  (答案为C)

  六、以as if,as though引导的从句

  在as if,as though引导的从句中,如果谈论的是不可能或不真实的情况时,它们所引用的状语从句要用虚拟语气,动词形式和wish 后面的从中动词形式变化相同。

  1、He talks as if he _____ everything in the world.

  A. knows

  B. knew

  C. had known

  D. would have known

  (答案:B。as if(though)从句中非真实性情况用虚拟语气。本句表示说话人对现在的情况有所怀疑,所以用过去时。)

  2、You are talking as if you had seen them

  你谈的那么起劲,好像你真的见过似的。(表示想象中的过去的动作)

  七、以suggest,advise,insist等词后引导的宾语从句中,从句的谓语动词要用should+动词原形,should可以省略。

  类似的动词有:propose,insist,suggest,order,demand,require,request等。

  1、The doctor advised that Mr. Malan _____ an operation right away so as to save his life.

  A. had

  B. would have

  C. have

  D. was going to have

  (答案:C)

  2、His mother insisted that he _____ the coat when going out.

  A. put on

  B. puts on

  C. to put

  D. putting on

  (答案:A)

  八、It is necessary/important/urgent that引导的主语从句中,从句的谓语动词要用should+原形动词,should可以省略。

  1、It’s desired that she _____ to teach us at least twice a week.

  A. comes

  B. will come

  C. come

  D. may come

  (答案:C)

  2、It’s urgent that a meeting _____ before the final decision is made.

  A. will be arranged

  B. must be arranged

  C. be arranged

  D. would be arranged

  (答案:C)

  九、It is time (that)…引导的定语从句中,谓语动词用过去时。

  1、It’s high time we _____ something to stop traffic accident.

  A. do

  B. will do

  C. did

  D. must do

  (答案:C)

  2、Don’t you think it is time you _____ smoking?

  A. give up

  B. gave up

  C. would give up

  D. should give up

  (答案:B)


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